Thursday, October 31, 2019
Freedom and Responsibility of Parents - Essay Example In this story we have Patrick, the head of the family who brought untold miseries to his family by being an irresponsible parent. PatrickÃ¢â¬â¢s wife was very naÃ ¯ve and was carried away by all that Patrick told her and never once questioned his actions. In fact she thought that her husband was very handsome and genuine in his dealings with her. Patrick took advantage of the situation and never told his wife any details of how he earned his money. Patrick worked as an orderly at the hospital but stole a lot of drugs and sold them for a high price. Sometimes, he used to be away from home for days on end and when he returned usually brought a lot of money. His wife never questioned from where the money came but she happily spent her share without asking any questions. Their little son Davey was too small to understand what was going on between his parents. The drugs such as Valium and ludes were found all over the place and both parents took whatever they wanted and did not care ab out what happened after that. Soon Patrick got into deep trouble and was imprisoned and got a sentence of 25 years and DaveyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had to be taken to the hospital for treatment. She was in a rather bad shape and when at the hospital she said Ã¢â¬Å"They took me for a junkie and I guess I was really one too, though I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t known it till that very day.Ã¢â¬ (Madison Smartt Bell) When she came out of hospital life was still hard as she had to run up and down between the prison and the house. Her son Davey was given away to the Bakers who looked after him with great care and love. Once a month his mother used to visit him and spend some time playing around with Davey. According to me this whole scene is unwarranted and a child who could have had a safe and healthy home was now penalized and was forced to live away from his family because of responsible parents. This pain and trauma could have been avoided had Davey been blessed with good parents.
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Human rights and civil liberties - Choose one of the rights listed below. Explain how the European Convention on Human Rights seeks to uphold that right, highli - Essay Example Under the Treaty, inhuman and degrading punishment would violate the rights of an individual, or even a child, to freedom from arbitrary treatment - such as excessive punishment or torture under imprisonment. There have been allegations of inhuman and degrading treatment in prisons and the provisions of the Geneva Convention have been found inadequate in this regard. However, Article 3 of the European Convention addresses all such violations of the right to freedom from discriminatory treatment. Article 3 has been primarily applied in respect to international victims of torture and cruel, arbitrary treatment while imprisoned. However corporal punishment of children is also emerging as an area where the provisions of Article 3 would apply. Such punishment would be equivalent to mental and physical torture which is deemed to be unacceptable under the Convention. Yet traditional belief has held that corporal punishment is an essential part of discipline and this conflict between punishm ent and freedom from torture has generated controversy within the European Union. In view of the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"we live in a society in which violence is spreading like a plagueÃ¢â¬ 4 and incidents of terrorist violence and destruction are soaring, the provisions of Article 3 of the Convention help to protect individuals from violence. When the violence or torture is perpetrated on children through corporal punishment, there is a special cause of action that arises for the exercise of Article 3, since children are in a weaker position as compared to adults. Corporal punishment can sometimes be excessive and thereby constitute degrading treatment that harms the child physically, emotionally and mentally. Legal reforms have been undertaken in several countries to declare corporal punishment of children unlawful - a violation of the protection against torture and inhuman treatment guaranteed under Article
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Chuck Close | Art Style Analysis When he left the UW for Yale in 1962, Close changed his style completely, dumping abstract paintings based on de Kooning in favor or photorealist portraits. He turned his back on abstraction in favor of photorealism because he wanted to find his own voice and not continue to do work similar to that of his UW mentor, Art Professor Alden Mason. It was a dramatic break: Photorealism is a painting style resembling photography in its close attention to detail, the opposite of abstract expressionism. He achieved his international reputation by demonstrating that a very traditional art form, portrait painting, could be resurrected as a challenging form of contemporary expression. His work has been superficially described as photo realist, but is more revealingly positioned with the development of minimalism and process art of the 1960s and 1970s, says Christopher Ozubko, director of the UW School of Art. Closes large, iconic portraits are generated from a system of marking which involves painstaking replication of the dot system of the mechanical printing process. The portraits he producesutterly frontal, mural-size, and centered in shallow spacereplicate the veracity of a photograph and undermine the objectivity of photography at the same time, critics say. In the early days, though, his work was the complete opposite of realism. Upon his arrival at the UW from Everett Community Collegewhich back in the 1950s was a feeder for the UW art programhe was influenced heavily by the now-retired Mason. They used to get thick paint by the gallon from a special dealer in Oakland, and churned out lots of abstract works. It was the opposite of the precise work he is best known for, says Mason. We just glopped on tons of paint and followed the influence of de Kooning and other New York painters of the time. The brushwork then took a lot of energy, was emotional, hard work, full of anxiety and trauma because it was all improvisational. You had no idea what was going to turn out. The Marxist Analysis enables a piece of illustration or artwork to be put in its historical, social and cultural context. This can be done by analysing the production, consumption and status of the image. The work of Chuck Close can be analysed in this way to discover its purpose and context. I am particularly interested in the dramatic shift in the work of Chuck Close and the way he completely changed his style and way of working. Close began by producing very large photorealistic portraits and had a unique and very well liked style. Photorealism was very popular at the time culture However, he was not able to continue working in this way after suffering from a spinal cord injury in 1988, which caused him to lose mobility in all parts of his body except a small amount of movement in his neck. His accident left him feeling helpless and many believed this was the end of his career as an artist. However, he did not give up and continued producing artwork by holding a paintbrush between his teeth and painting small pixel-like sections to make up a larger image. Although his later paintings differ in method from his earlier canvases, the preliminary process remains the same. To create his grid work copies of photos, Close puts a grid on the photo and on the canvas and copies cell by cell. Typically, each square within the grid is filled with roughly executed regions of color (usually consisting of painted rings on a contrasting background) which give the cell a perceived average hue which makes sense from a distance. His first tools for this included an airbrush, rags, razor blade, and an eraser mounted on a power drill. His first picture with this method was Big Self Portrait, a black and white enlargement of his face to a 107.5in by 83.5in (2.73m by 2.12m) canvas, made in over four months in 1968, and acquired by the Walker Art Center in 1969. He made seven more black and white portraits during this period. He has been quoted as saying that he used such diluted paint in the airbrush that all eight of the paintings were made with a single t ube of mars black acrylic. However, Close continued to paint with a brush strapped onto his wrist with tape, creating large portraits in low-resolution grid squares created by an assistant. Viewed from afar, these squares appear as a single, unified image which attempt photo-reality, albeit in pixelated form. Although the paralysis restricted his ability to paint as meticulously as before, Close had, in a sense, placed artificial restrictions upon his hyperrealist approach well before the injury. That is, he adopted materials and techniques that did not lend themselves well to achieving a photorealistic effect. Small bits of irregular paper or inked fingerprints were used as media to achieve astoundingly realistic and interesting results. Close proved able to create his desired effects even with the most difficult of materials to control. He soon regained some movement in his upper arm and was able to produce artwork even more freely. He then found he was not completely powerless and developed a new style of working which was even more amazing than before his accident. By losing something valuable, he found something he never would have even imagined and realised he was stronger than anyone ever thought. The cultural context of Closes work contributes a lot to its meaning. At a time of Abstract Expressionism he went against the mainstream with his photorealistic portraits and redefined portraiture. He has always worked strictly from photographs, producing canvases usually about three meters high. Chuck Close uses grids to transfer the images to the canvas producing lifelike images with intricate detail. His earlier work had a very strong photographic feel- he even blurred out things further away from the face, as a real camera lens blurs the background of a photo. Chuck Close did not work in the same way as anyone else at the time. His portraits focused on the hair, skin and details such as wrinkles, rather than on the eyes, as many other artists at the time did. Such realism was created as Close captured every pore and wrinkle. This technique started out with a series of portraits in black and white, and the artist began using more colours in the 1970s. In the 1980s, he started towards abstraction. His best known technique is the fingerprint paintings in which he used an inkpad and his own fingerprints to fill in the grid of his canvas. The canvases got bigger, but the realism was still there, in fact, if a person were to stand at a distance where he/she could see the entire image, it would be very difficult for that person to tell that the piece was created with fingerprints. Once the person gets close enough to see the fingerprints, it is very unlikely that he/she can get a good view of the piece as a whole. His most current stage of abstraction is one developed after he became partially paralyzed. He fills each of his grids with an oval composed of a few rings of bright colors. The style is still realistic, but not to the degree of Superrealism. Average paintings done with this technique is typically smaller than his earlier work. Close usually works in stages but in this piece the rounded or hard-edged scribble shapes are not determined by a grid, unlike his other work. Closes actual hand drawn pencil lines on the softground plate seem physical. To make this piece he had to alter his approach to the image but had wanted to make a face using colour separations for a long time. Colour separations are made through variations on the primary colours red, yellow and blue so rather than creating the image one square at a time, he needed to think in terms of the whole face at once even though the whole face could not come together until the final colour was layered on. Each individual state is scribbled echo of the entire face. The print is relatively small compared to the rest of his work, being only 18 1/4 x 15 1/4, zooming in on Closes face, cropping it off on all four sides. The extreme close up may symbolise the mature artist looking back on his career, confronting both the viewer and himself in a portfolio of i ntimate-sized etchings with a hand-drawn feel. Closes own explanation for why he made this piece is practical and unpretentious I wanted to demystify the process so that people understand how things happen. This piece would have been very time-consuming and labour intensive for Close as each stage had to be planned expertly. How does it communicate with the audience? This Marxist approach can lead on to Semicotic analysis which studies the use of a set of signs which enables the intended audience to understand the artworks meaning.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Orson Welles 	Orson Welles was an actor, producer, director, writer, and columnist who revolutionized the film industry by directing movies that depicted men and woman as real human beings. Throughout his writing career, WellesÃ¢â¬â¢ characters reflected his own personality and inspired others to write about human struggles, both good and bad. An innovative, dynamic individual, Welles spent his entire life experimenting with different mediums and bringing to the world his vision of manÃ¢â¬â¢s never ending struggle to conquer his own inner demons. Welles was a man whose life was one of paradox. His films reflected his inner conflicts and his attempt to assuage the two extremes of his own existence. 	"For thirty years people have been asking me how I reconcile X with Y! 		The truthful answer is that I don't. Everything about me is a 			contradiction and so is everything about everybody else. We are made 		out of oppositions; we live between two poles. There is a philistine and 		an aesthete in all of us, and a murderer and a saint. You don't reconcile 	the poles. You just recognize them." [To Kennety Tynan, 1967] 	Orson Welles is often referred to as a "Renaissance man", an individual whoÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitious and concerned with revolutionizing multiple aspects of life. He was a prolific writer and talented actor who often appeared in his own productions. A gifted artist, Welles, coupled his abundant energy with an enthusiasm for life. He tried everything and was not afraid to take risks and to suffer the consequences of failures as well as the acclaims of success. 	While, some critics say that Welles could never top "Citizen Kane", such movies as "The Trial", "Touch of Evil", and "The Lady from Shanghai" are considered classics and monumental feats in cinema production. However, movies like "The Stranger", "Chimes at Midnights", and "Mr. Arkadin" were criticized as being "One-Man Band" shows where Welles glorified and engrandized himself. 	WellesÃ¢â¬â¢ films reflect his ambivalent vision of life. He organized the Mercury Theater as the result of a feud with the Federal Theater Project after its attempt to sensor his work. Welles refused to bow to their demands to make his pro-labor play, The Cradle Will Rock, less political. Throughout the rest of his life, he preferred ostracism to compromise and often endured ridicule and condemnation rather than give in to the demands of those in authority. 	Welles utilizes very distinctive images that are extravagant and dynamic to convey his unique prospective.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
In Public Opinion: Democratic Ideals, Democratic Practice, Rosalee Clawson and Zoe Oxley interpret public opinion as an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and preferences in regards to all governmental matters and policies.(424) These individual ideas collectively are viewed as the overall populations opinions summarized and can be reflected by a poll. By collecting these opinions through the polling process, lawmakers are likely to take these opinions into consideration when creating and/or regulating a policy. In 1824 The Harrisburg Pennsylvanian newspaper conducted one such poll where the readers were asked to return a postcard with their opinion about the presidential candidates; Andrew Jackson or John Quincy Adams. Jackson won the poll as well as the eventual election.(Franklin) This style of opinion polling has increased over the years and evolved into a more refined and accurate representation of the public. For instance, instead of submitting an untraceable, anonymous postcard, peop le are instead asked to submit a survey and are required to submit some personal information, which will remain anonymous, in order to prevent the chance of someone submitting more than one survey. Due to the availability of the telephones and the internet, we are able to survey a larger and more diverse group of citizens which will allow for more accurate results. As voters, we are able to have some control over who represents our opinions as well as who we believe will make decisions that are truly for the betterment of the people and society. By understanding the five linkage models established by Norman Luttbeg (Robert & Kent, 20-21) we are able to see how public opinion can sway the formulation of a public policy. 1. The Rational-Activist Model assumes that all voting citizens are level-headed, informed, involved and politically active individuals. This model presents the idea that if representatives do not make decisions to satisfy the demands of the people, then the people will replace that representative. This model is the least likely to be apparent since the majority of the public does not keep close tabs on political actions. The largest flaw with this model is that we are assuming all voters are educated and rational about a particular issue and/or candidate. 2. The Political Parties Model takes place when an individual has an overall agreement with the ideals of an individual party. Citizens identify with a party whose overall attitude and beliefs mesh with their own. A major flaw within this model is the idea that representatives feelÃ pressured to take actions that are for the betterment of the party but not always for the individual citizen. 3. The Interest Groups Model establishes that the public can express their opinions to lawmakers by forming a group who will advocate for a collective cause. The groups place pressure on the lawmakers and parties electorally by rallying behind those that will publicly promote them. As well as monetarily by donating funds to those individuals and/or parties. By understanding this particular model we are able to see the likelihood of one group being more represented than another in society. This would create strife among the people as the group who is the least wealthy would be more likely to be underrepresented even though that group could contain a more accurate representation of the overall public opinion. 4. The Delegate Model maintains that a representative is elected based on the candidates values but not necessarily their stance on the issues. This model varies from the Rational Activist model in that it places more responsibility on the candidate to follow the opinions of the constituency or face being replaced and not place the responsibility on the public to educate themselves. While the Delegate Model and the Rational Activist Model are very similar the key difference is in noting that this model places more pressure on a candidate to follow their constituencyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas even if the candidate believes that other options would be in the best interest of the constituents. 5. The Sharing Model speaks on the idea that a representative will act on their own belief that may not be in complete alignment with their constituency but due to the unlikelihood that the lawmaker will go directly against their constituency they are still placing public opinion in their favor. This model overwhelmingly displays that a representatives values and character may come more into consideration with a voter than that representatives stance on a particular issue. (WK 2008) When we say population we are referring to a large mass of people that represent the summation of a geographical area. (Robert & Kent, 28) Population can be that of a country, state, city or even a university leading to extremely large groups of people that would take too much time to poll individually. Within any given population we take samples, collect data from a subdivision of a population in an effort to estimate the overall opinions of the collective group. Within these subsets of populations the results may not be a completely accurate reflection of the overall population. Religion,Ã race and income are factors that can greatly sway the outcome but most instances are unintentional. (US History) A biased sample is where there has been a methodical selection of the participants in an effort to achieve a planned outcome. An unintentional occurrence might take place with a telephone sampling. The University of Texas at Austin elaborated on this bias in regards to telephone sampling. For instance, if the amount of people who are without phones, or those who simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t answer the phone are not considered this can greatly skew the results. Truly random samplings are where the participants are participating solely due to chance and where every varying subset of citizens h as an equal chance to be selected. (Rosalee & Zoe, 29-30) A sample will very rarely get the exact percentages as it is highly likely that they will miss a group of people since the entire population is not participating and we are taking smaller groups to represent the entirety. The confidence level is a mathematical probability measure that tells us how reliable our data is in terms of accuracy. We keep this probability to a manageable number by keeping the number of individuals polled low. Polls are kept to less than 1,000 respondents due to the margin of error as well as the fact that the accuracy improves only marginally with larger samples. (Robert & Kent 30) The 1936 poll conducted by Literacy Digest proclaimed that the Republican candidate was likely to be the overwhelming winner of the Presidential election when in actuality it was Franklin Delano Roosevelt that won the bid for President. Seeing as how this poll was conducted at a time where the majority of people were dealing with the aftermath of the stock market crash and the subsequent great depression we can infer that the majority of the people polled were people who had the funds to subscribe to a weekly magazine, owned a telephone and possibly an automobile. The Republican candidate was proje cted to be the winner most likely due to the affluent Republican participants of the survey. During this same election George GallupÃ¢â¬â¢s American Institute of Public Opinion did project the winner to be Franklin Delano Roosevelt, which placed the Gallup poll into the spotlight. It is believed that the Gallup poll was able to accurately predict the outcome due to their preference of using a smaller and more diverse sample. (Polling the Nations) Ideologies are the beliefs of an individual about the various social, cultural, political and economic operations within a society. An individual forms opinions based on their beliefs, life experience, genetics and many factors that as a whole make up their political ideology. (Rosalee & Zoe, p62) The liberal ideology is based on the beliefs that government intervention in economic matters, as well as a basic belief in the equality of the people. While a conservatives ideology is based on the beliefs that there should be minimal government intervention in all matters, as well as an emphasis on tradition and individual responsibility. (Robert & Kent, p72-73) There are five main influences that will affect how a person develops their ideology; family, gender, religion, ethnicity, and/or region. All of these influences will combine, influencing the opinions and beliefs of the citizen. Since a person develops opinions based on the experiences and knowledge they have developed over the course of their lives, there can be instances where a person can completely flip-flop on their original ideals as time progresses and while this is highly unlikely it is still possible.( Pelin, Erik, JackieÃ¢â¬ ¦) For instance, a person who grew up in an affluential conservative household may find as they get older and more independent that their view of the world is vastly different from that of their families. This can also lead to strife amongst families in instances where there is an obvious divide on the ideals. A person who is witness to the exchange of ideas between the opposing sides is likely to be influenced by the attitudes and opinions of the peop le while also comparing those individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideals to their behaviors, character, and reliability. Conservatives and Liberals have very different ideological standpoints and many Americans tend to lean towards one or the other in regards to their personal beliefs toward public policy making and governing styles. However, it has been discovered that the majority of the present American public do not identify themselves as adhering to one strict ideology but instead place themselves somewhere in the middle. (Robert & Kent, p83) Conservatives have the highest percentage of individuals who are strict ideologues. (Gallup-a) But there are many individuals from either side that can be uncompromisingÃ in their ideals and take their truth as the one and only truth. In understanding a personÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen ideology we are faced with an interesting fact; that while most people tend to identify themselves as conservative, the overall majority of the public tends to vote more liberally. (John, 2014) Conservatives are ideologically defined by their strict adherence to traditional values and practices as well as their support for little to no governmental regulation and their emphasis on individual citizens taking personal responsibility. Liberals are alternatively defined by their belief that the government should be active in the regulation of the people in order to protect the citizens from the possibility of unequal and discriminatory actions. (Rosalee & Zoe, p134) Liberals are also recognized by their beliefs in the overall equality of citizens, protection of liberties and progressive thinking that is based on the idea that there is overall an essential goodness to the mass populous. While there are vast differences between these opposing sides , it is possible to see how a person may agree with a conservative view of government while simultaneously believing in the humanist attributes of the liberal view. Individuals will usually develop an allegiance to a particular party (typically Democrat or Republican, though many other political parties have emerged), or will categorize themselves as being an independent of a specific party affiliation. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s party identification gives us a better idea on how that person will vote in elections as people tend to follow their elected partyÃ¢â¬â¢s specific views on an issue as well as electorally support a political leader of the party, but that is not always the case. Party identification has been described as being a psychological identification, or being the way an individual has come to their current attitudes towards public policy by way of their individual life experience, that will continue to influence how new information is processed. (Thomas & Geoffrey) If we were to question an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s likelihood to remain a steady voter for one particular party, the Michigan Model theory will give us such a theory to go on as this model emphasizes an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s party attachment isÃ predominately stable. One noticeable flaw in this theory is if a party were to change their stance on an issue that overwhelmingly goes against the beliefs or ideals of the individual, the voter may then vote against the party if not possibly switch parties altogether. But this is unlikely as the voter is more likely to respond to the performances of their elected representatives than to their ideologies alone. (Harold, David, Marianne & Paul) By looking at the present day Republican Party we are able to see they are typically very conservative in their views, which may be why more and more religious people vote in accordance with this party. The Republican party favors towards older, affluent and white males while the Democratic party tends to be more diverse. The Democratic Party contains a very diverse group of people and is weighted in the areas of women, race and sexual orientation. (Gallup-b) The majority of younger Americans also identifies with the Democratic Party. By seeing the makeup of these parties we can deduce that it is likely the Democrats are representative of a Ã¢â¬Å"new schoolÃ¢â¬ wave that is pushing for a more liberalistic approach. (Adam, 2014) The presidential approval rating is one of the main political opinion polls taken and focused on by the media. This ranking shows whether the public generally approves or disapproves of the job performance of the person holding AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s highest office. In studying the inconsistent falls and climbs of the approval rating there have been certain trends believed to be the cause of some high points during a presidential term. (Rosalee & Zoe, 109) The honeymoon effect is the first trend that will take place during the days after a President takes office. This effect refers to the initial phase after the swearing in of the president into the office. Since this man is entering office with a clean sheet, and has recently come off of an approval high as evidenced by his election, people are more likely to be optimistic towards actions taken by the president. Eventually there will come a time where a problem is encountered and the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s plan of action will no doubtedly ups et a cluster of people. After this point there can be varying reasons for the day-to-day rising and falling of the approval rating. (Robert & Kent, 120) In some instances a presidents rating can climb when the nation has been confronted with a foreign event that involves America and possibly a crisis for the American people. This idea is referred to as the rally round the flag effect. Robert Erikson and Kent Tedin write in American Public Opinion (121) this effect is likely to occur due to the desire of the American people to feel united behind a leader. One of the most accurate examples of this would be the attitude of the American people after the attacks that took place on 9/11 and the subsequent skyrocketing in the approval ratings for President George W. Bush. Upon deeper evaluation of this occurrence: when there is more of a relative calming of the people and the effects of war, both financially as well as the casualties incurred, the approval ratings are then subject to drop, one could say when Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ sets in. (Rosalee & Zoe, 111) The final source for the possible explanations behind drastic increases and decreases in a presidential approval rating is the state of the economy. An economy that is poorly performing will likely result in low approval ratings for the President and a prosperous economy to increase the approval rating. According to Kevin Hoover in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Phillips CurveÃ¢â¬ , during a low economic point there will be higher rates of unemployment and inflation. These two factors can have a substantial and negative impact on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s livelihood. President Obama was elected during a time of economic strife due to many factors including a housing market crash as well as the weighing cost of the Ã¢â¬Å"War on TerrorÃ¢â¬ . Even though Obama was not in the Presidential office during the onset of the war, nor was he to blame for the inevitable housing market crash, his approval rating suffered due to the onset of these events aftereffects. Bibliography Robert S. Erikson and Kent L. Tedin, American Public Opinion, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2011 Rosalee A. Clawson and Zoe M. Oxley, Public Opinion: Democratic Ideals, Democratic Practice. Washington D.C., 2013 The University of Texas at Austin. Ã¢â¬Å"Biased Sampling and Extrapolation.Ã¢â¬ Last modified August 28, 2012. https://www.ma.utexas.edu/users/mks/statmistakes/biasedsampling.html Pelin Kesebir, Erik Phillips, Jackie Anson, Tom Pyszczynski, Matt Motyl, Ã¢â¬Å"Ideological Consistency across the Political Spectrum: Liberals are More Consistent but Conservatives Become More Consistent When Coping with Existential ThreatÃ¢â¬ (February 11, 2013). http://ssrn.com/abstract=2215306 John Sides, Ã¢â¬Å"Why Most Conservatives are Secretly Liberals,Ã¢â¬ The Washington Post, March 6, 2014. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/03/06/why-most-conservatives-are-secretly-liberals/ Gallup-a. Ã¢â¬Å"Conservatives Remain the Largest Ideological Group in U.S.Ã¢â¬ Last modified January 12, 2012. http://www.gallup.com/poll/152021/conservatives-remain-largest-ideological-group.aspx Gallup-b. Ã¢â¬Å"Democrats Racially Diverse; Republicans Mostly WhiteÃ¢â¬ Last modified February 8, 2013 http://www.gallup.com/poll/160373/democrats-racially-diverse-republicans-mostly-white.aspx US History. Ã¢â¬Å"American Political Attitudes and Participation: What Factors Shape Political Attitudes?Ã¢â¬ Last modified January, 2013. http://www.ushistory.org/gov/4b.asp Christopher Ellis and James A. Stimson, Ã¢â¬Å"Pathways to Ideology in American Politics: the Operational-Symbolic Ã¢â¬Å"ParadoxÃ¢â¬ RevisitedÃ¢â¬ http://www.unc.edu/~jstimson/Working_Papers_files/Pathways.pdf Harold D. Clarke, David Sanders, Marianne C. Stewart and Paul Whitely, Ã¢â¬Å"The Dynamics of Party Identification,Ã¢â¬ in Political Choice in Britain, edited by Harold D. Clarke (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 185-186. https://www.essex.ac.uk/bes/bookfiles/Sanders-ch06.pdf Franklin & Marshall College. Ã¢â¬Å"The First Political Poll.Ã¢â¬ Last modified June 18, 2002. http://www.fandm.edu/politics/politically-uncorrected-column/2002-politically-uncorrected/the-first-political-poll WK, Ph.D. Candidate, Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of Salience on the Relationship between Public Policy and Public OpinionÃ¢â¬ (Paper prepared for DC AAPOR Student Paper Competition, December 12, 2008) http://www.dc-aapor.org/documents/spc08wk.pdf
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Thesis statement: Human defines the ideal husband as the one that is kind, the one that care, and the one that has as only devotion the success and happiness of his family. In the book Ã¢â¬Å"An Ideal Husband,Ã¢â¬ Oscar Wilde, the author, presents Robert and Goring as two men who were ready to do everything it takes to save their love and satisfy the demand of their lover. Although their stories are coming together in some points, Chiltern and Goring have their disparities and particularities. 1 Ã¢â¬â RobertoÃ¢â¬â¢s life was a mixture of hided truth, and success in politic Ã¢â¬â Roberto was a self-divided person and had a conceal past which he tried to hide from his wife, so that her wife doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t misunderstand him. Ã¢â¬â Roberto was a successful well-known politician, honorable to most people in society. Ã¢â¬â The real title of the book should have been Under the Table 2- Lord Goring was conciliating, honorable, and romantic gentlemen Ã¢â¬â He tried to reduce the misundersta nding between Robert and Chiltern Ã¢â¬â Lord Goring was an honorable person in the society; he was also a romantic person. 3- The adaptive attitude of Robert and Goring Ã¢â¬â Dump Mrs. Cheverly was blackmailing Roberto about his previous secret. Ã¢â¬â Fight rumors, and ready to abandon profession to save their marriage. An Ideal Husband As men, most of us grow up with the strong desire of success in his life. The real meaning of that so desired success is the dream to be emotionally, physically, and financially stable. We want to be the one who cares for the family, especially for kids and wife; we want to be the ideal husband. In this story named Ã¢â¬Å"An Ideal HusbandÃ¢â¬ , the author Oscar Wilde presented Sir Robert Chiltern and Lord Goring as ideal husbands. Mrs. Cheverly and Lady Gertrude also are very important characters in this story. In this story, Sir Robert and Goring played a number of important roles which make the title of this play fruitful. An ideal husband is much respected and he becomes the most important person in his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This love and respect was noticeable throughout the story, which also make this title useful. Robert and Goring are two people who share their ambitions, the desire to take care, and their vision for the future. First of all, Sir Robert, a government official who owes his success and fortune to secret scandal, was a successful and extremely ambitious politician1. He devoted all his life to his success, following his mentor Baron Arnhem. He is one of the major characters of this story and he can be considered as an ideal husband because of his loving attitude with his wife, which was noticeable throughout the play. He was a self-divided person and had a conceal past which he tried to hide from his wife, so that her wife doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t misunderstand him, and they can continue their life with each other without having any kind of misunderstandings between them. This attitude can be considered as a great attitude of an ideal husband. This is because he never wanted to create any misunderstanding with his wife. Therefore, he hide his secret from his wife and was trying to lead his life having a great relationship with his wife by forgetting about his conceal past. His behavior was noticeable when Mrs. Cheverly was blackmailing him about his past secret. She has with her an incriminating letter which proves RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in insider trading in the Suez Canal Scheme, in order to benefit from an investment. Sir Robert was very nervous because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want her wife to be known about this secret2. This is because, he was afraid that this will create difficulties between his wife and him. This kind of behavior indicated that how much serious he was about his relationship with his wife, which proves that he was an appropriate character for an ideal husband. Although the title of the book kind of fit the story, the author could have give a different name to the story and it would still fit. For instance, the story is full of secrets hidden, betrayal, and blackmails. Moreover, all these situations happened in a total discretion between two or more people, as if they are trying to solve it without the world being aware. Under the Table would have fit as a title to the story. Second, Lord Goring was a dandy. Always conciliating and ready to help, he was among the people who dressed themselves the better. He represented Robert as a lucky person by giving him honor, money, a great lover of his wife, and these are more than enough things for an ideal husband comparing to the real world. Moreover, he put his status of good man in danger because he wanted to helpÃ Robert3. Looked as a model politician to people, he was very romantic toward ladies, and had a high position in his social life; most woman want such a husband who is a successful person in his social life, and who is very romantic to his wife. Since he was a successful well-known politician, honorable to most people in society, and very romantic with his wife, he can get the title of this story Ã¢â¬Å"an ideal husbandÃ¢â¬ . When he was blackmailed by Mrs. Cheverly, he was afraid because his wife Lady Gertrude Chiltern was an educated and a perfectly virtuous. Since she was very strict in doing right things, Sir Roberto didnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell her about his secret. He thought that she will never forgive her and she will leave him forever, which he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want at all. Since he loved her wife and had faith in her, he should tell her about his secret. He, however, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say anything and was completely denying when he was asked by his wife about his secret. This behavior doesnÃ¢â¬â ¢t go with the behavior of an ideal husband because an ideal husband shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hide anything from her wife4. However, if we try to analyze his situations, we can think that he was right about what he was doing. This is because, he was scared, and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to lose the respect that he got from his wife, and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t wanted to let her down since she feels very proud about him. As he loves her, he most of the time wanted to make her feel proud and happy. Therefore, he hides his secret to her and tried forget everything about his past, so that he can lead a beautiful life with his wife. The fact that he put his own reputation and his friendship in danger in order to help his friend gave us one proof of him being able to be qualified ideal. Third, Lord Goring and Robert throughout the play show us what make them special5. As for Lord goring, he knew how to treat women with respect. He was also educated and successful in politic. Goring knew the value of friendship and was ready to sacrifice his honor to serve it. The fact that he was able to turn Mrs. Cheverly blackmails against Robert into a positive outcome, and therefore save his friendship with Robert was a good thing. As for Robert, who was one of the major character of this play, could be also described as an ideal husband in the future. The reasons are, he was extremely intelligent, and he valued his couple first and was ready to do everything to save it, and is loyal. Admirable politician, Robert knew how to twist words. The way Oscar wild represented him, was very realistic. In addition, his attitude throughout the play indicates that he will also be anÃ ideal husband, and he will love her wife, and will do whatever an ideal husband does. It is predicable because of his attitude which appeared throughout the play. Roberto and his wife did not have nice relationship because of his secret6. When she heard about his secret, she quarreled with him and decided not to lead her life with him anymore Mrs. CHEVELEY: Ã¢â¬Å"Ah! The strength of women comes from the fact that psychology cannot explain us. Men can be analyzed, women merely adored.Ã¢â¬ In this time, lord was helping Sir Roberto, so tha t he could get rid of his problem, and was trying to clarify RobertoÃ¢â¬â¢s and his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s misunderstanding. LordÃ¢â¬â¢s this attitude was also noncable at the very end of the play, where lord played an important role to get Roberto and Chiltern together. He sent a letter to Roberto by asking to forget about past, and to start a new life with enthusiasm. He said Roberto that it was not him, who sent that letter, but his wife. Roberto was very happy to know that her wife sent that letter to him. Therefore, he decided to stay with his wife. Since Lord was helping to rebuild their relationship, it is predictable that he will also be an ideal husband. Another reason for predicting Lord as an ideal husband is that he was a romantic person. He was socially established, and a smart man, and a lover of ChilternÃ¢â¬â¢s sister7. Since he was trying to helping Robert, and he had to work with other characters, he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to spend sufficient time with his girlfriend. However, it appeared that he was missing her girlfriend and wanting to meet with his girlfriend. In the middle of this pl ay, when he went to RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s house to meet with Chiltern, he asked his girlfriend for a date. Mrs. Cheverly said:, Ã¢â¬Å"Who on earth writes to him on pink paper? How silly to write on pink paper! It looks like the beginning of a middle-class romance. Romance should never begin with sentiment. It should begin with science and end with a settlement.Ã¢â¬ Lord, however, couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to meet her in time which made him very disappointed. His attitude indicates that he was a romantic person and also wanted to make her girlfriend happy like. This behavior forced readers of this story to predict him as an ideal husband. Though he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get enough opportunities to spend enough times with his girlfriend, he did propose her at the very end of the play, and they decided to marry each other8. These characters will help Lord to become an ideal husband in the future. To sum it up, if you know somebody that cares about others, helps others, or is ready to do whatever it takes for the otherÃ person to feel comfortable, you have there a potential ideal husband. Sir Roberto is an ideal husband of this story, and it can be predicted that Lord will also be an ideal husband in the future since he had most characteristics such as reb uilding relationship, ability to clarify misunderstanding between husband and wife, romanticism, and some other characteristics like that of an ideal husband. Their social position, romanticism, leaving bad attitude such as RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s previous secret made them ideal husbands. Life is sometimes full of secrets that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to share because they are either thirty or really personal. Share it with our special loved one will be a plus in our quest of well being and happiness.